Visnaga markovina (Ammi visnaga)
Description of plants . Visnaga markovina — biennial and annual in cultivation herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae. The root is whitish, rod, woody, slightly branched. Stem erect, rather thick, branched, green, densely leafy, height 45— 120 cm Leaves are alternate, twice – or trizhdyperistorassechennye on linear-filiform lobules. The inflorescence is a dense sophisticated umbrella with a diameter of 10-15 cm, consisting of 50-100 rays 2-8 cm length of The longest rays are on the edge. At maturity they are bent towards the center, closing thus short beams and ripens the fruits. The flowers are small, abundantly secrete nectar. The fruit is ovoid, hollow, smooth viscopedic.
Habitat. Distribution. Visnaga — Mediterranean plant that grows in southern Europe, southwest Asia and North Africa. Visnaga — drought-resistant short-day plant that requires much heat. Only in the period of seed germination requires high soil moisture. Excess humidity in the flowering phase leads to a significant reduction of yield visage due to the appearance of fungal diseases and mass falling off of ovaries. This culture is undemanding to soil, grows well in both heavy and light soils with a small amount of nutrients.
Procurement and quality of raw materials. Cleaning visnaga begin in the phase of maturation of the Central parasols and most of the umbrellas of the first order.At this time, 50-60% of umbels of each plant are brownish. The stems to this point acquire a whitish color, the lower leaves dry out. Beveled in this phase plants are well matured in the rolls. To avoid shedding of seeds cleaning visage should be done in the morning hours. Medicinal raw materials visage — its ripe fruit.
Chemical composition. The fruits visage micowaving contain derivatives of ferochrome (kellin, visnagin, celloglazed) and dihydroergotamine (visnadin and samidin). Kellin is also contained in the roots (0,07%), stems (0,09—0,11%), leaves (0,98—1,20%) and sun umbrellas (0,20— 1 ,01 % ). In addition, in the fruit visnaga is up to 0.2 % of essential and up to 20 % fatty oil.
Application in medicine. Drugs visage the most widely used drug kellin, which doctors prescribed in case of chronic infarction, bronchial asthma, spasms of the intestines and stomach.
Contraindications: for prolonged use and overdose possible nausea, vomiting, allergic skin rashes and deterioration of General health. Kellin is contraindicated in severe circulatory failure.